The Alien and Sedition Acts were among the most controversial laws of the federalist party. These were four bills passed by the Federalist Congress in 1798 and signed by Adams. Defence lawyers said the acts were aimed at protecting themselves from foreign citizens and protecting themselves from heinous attacks on the weakening of the government. Opponents of the attacked acts are both unconstitutional and a means of stifling criticism of the administration. Republican Democrats also said the laws violated the right of states to act in accordance with the Tenth Amendment. None of the four acts did anything to promote national unity against the French or any other country and did indeed do much to undermine the unity that already existed in the country. The acts in general and the public opposition to them were all unlucky for John Adams.  One of the key factors in the turmoil around the Alien and Sedition Acts was that the concept of seditious defamation was totally incompatible with party policy. Republicans, it seems, had some understanding and understood that the ability to judge incumbents was essential to the survival of the party. The federalist party did not seem to have any idea and seems, in a way, to whip up the concepts of the party in general.  It was clear that Republicans were increasingly concentrating in their opposition and becoming more popular in the general population.
States do not enter into agreements for their own pleasure; they do so because they believe that these agreements will benefit their interests. The flip side of the peace is that even if federal states are not considered „states“ within the meaning of the Vienna Convention, some states may still be willing to enter into agreements with them if they believe that such agreements will promote their interests. International law would not oppose it. As we have already seen, there is little doubt that the federated states could be considered as international subjects capable of concluding treaties. Therefore, sovereign states may be prepared to view a unifying state as an international issue in order to conclude mutually beneficial agreements. Although the desire to carry out cultural activities at European level was evident as early as the 1970s, it was not until 1991 that Article 151 of the Maastricht Treaty officially gave culture a place in European integration, which states that „the Community contributes to the flowering of the cultures of the Member States, respecting their national and regional diversity while emphasizing the common cultural heritage“.