Over the years, especially as the population of other Nile basin countries has grown and these countries have developed the capacity to harvest Nile water more efficiently for national development, differences have arisen over Egypt`s insisting that the water rights it acquired through the 1929 and 1959 agreements (together called the Nile Water Agreements) have been made. day; and that no construction project is carried out on the Nile or any of its tributaries without the prior authorization of Cairo. Indeed, several Egyptian leaders have threatened to go to war to protect these so-called „acquired rights.“ Upstream countries, such as Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Ethiopia, argued that they were not bound by these agreements because they were never contracting parties. Indeed, Tanganjikas (now Tanzania, after unification with Zanzibar in 1964), Julius Nyerere, argued shortly after Britain`s independence in 1961 that the Nile water agreements delivered his country and other upstream countries to Egypt`s grace, forcing them to submit their national development plans to Cairo`s control and surveillance, and that such an approach to law and order was not consistent with the country`s status as a sovereign State as an independent State. it is compatible. This is the state. Since then, all upstream riparian countries have come out in favour of a new, more inclusive legal framework for the regulation of the Nile basin. In 1959, Egypt and an independent Sudan signed a bilateral agreement effectively strengthening the provisions of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1929. The 1959 agreement increased water allocations to both Egypt and Sudan – Egypt`s water inflow rose from 48 billion cubic meters to 55.5 billion cubic meters and Sudan`s from 4 billion to 18.5 billion cubic meters, so that 10 billion cubic meters are responsible for infiltration and evaporation. Finally, the agreement provided that in the event of an increase in the average water yield, the increased yield would be divided equally between the two riparian countries downstream (Egypt and Sudan).
The 1959 agreement, like the 1929 Anglo-Egyptian Treaty, does not take into account the water needs of other riparian countries, including Ethiopia, whose highlands provide more than 80% of the water flowing into the Nile. The first agreement was reached between Britain as a colonial power in East Africa and Egypt. Cairo has been privileged over other riparian countries as an important agricultural asset. .