Was the Munich Agreement a Success or Failure

In the spring of 1938, Hitler began to openly support the demands of German speakers living in the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia for closer relations with Germany. Hitler had recently annexed Austria to Germany, and the conquest of Czechoslovakia was the next step in his plan to create a „Greater Germany.“ The Czechoslovak government hoped that Britain and France would come to its aid in the event of a German invasion, but British Prime Minister Chamberlain was anxious to avoid war. He made two trips to Germany in September and offered Hitler favorable deals, but the Führer stuck to his demands. In the United States and the United Kingdom, the words „Munich“ and „appeasement“ amount to calling for open, often military, action to resolve an international crisis and characterizing a political adversary who condemns negotiations as a weakness. [102] In 1950, U.S. President Harry Truman invoked „Munich“ to justify his military action in the Korean War: „The world learned from Munich that security cannot be bought by appeasement.“ [103] Many subsequent crises were accompanied by cries of „Munich“ from politics and the media. In 1960, conservative U.S. Senator Barry Goldwater used „Munich“ to describe a domestic problem, claiming that an attempt by the Republican Party to appeal to liberals was „the Munich of the Republican Party.“ [104] In 1962, General Curtis LeMay told U.S. President John F. Kennedy that his refusal to bomb Cuba during the Cuban Missile Crisis was „almost as serious as the appeasement in Munich.“ [105] In 1965, U.S. President Lyndon Johnson justified increased military action in Vietnam: „We learned from Hitler and Munich that success only fuels the appetite for aggression.“ [106] The agreement was generally welcomed. French Prime Minister Daladier did not believe, as one scholar put it, that a European war was justified „to keep three million Germans under Czech sovereignty.“ But the same argument applies to Alsace-Lorraine – unlike the alliance between France and Czechoslovakia against German aggression.

Gallup polls in Britain, France and the United States showed that the majority of people supported the deal. Czechoslovak President Beneš was nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize in 1939. [52] An agreement was reached on September 29 and at approximately 1:30 p.m.m .m. On September 30, 1938,[43] Adolf Hitler, Neville Chamberlain, Benito Mussolini and Édouard Daladier signed the Munich Accords. The agreement was officially introduced by Mussolini, although the Italian plan was in fact almost identical to Godesberg`s proposal: the German army was to complete the occupation of the Sudetenland by October 10 and an international commission would decide on the future of the other disputed territories. The Munich Accords were a surprisingly successful strategy for NSDAP leader Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) in the months leading up to World War II. The agreement was signed in September. 30, 1938, and in this one the powers of Europe voluntarily yielded to the demands of Nazi Germany that the Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia should preserve „peace in our time“. The Munich Accords (Czech: Mnichovská dohoda; Slovak: Mníchovská dohoda; German: Munich Agreement) or Munich Betrayal (Czech: Mnichovská zrada; Mníchovská zrada) was an agreement concluded on 30 September 1938 in Munich between Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic and the Kingdom of Italy. It provided for the „cession of the Sudeten German territory“ from Czechoslovakia to Germany.

[1] Most European countries celebrated the agreement because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing the annexation of the Sudetenland by Nazi Germany, a region in western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people, mostly German-speaking. Hitler proclaimed this was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. [mute] An agreement signed at the Munich Conference in September 1938 ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia to Germany. The agreement was concluded between Germany, Italy, Great Britain and France. Czechoslovakia was not allowed to participate in the conference. In March 1939, six months after the munich accords were signed, Hitler violated the agreement and destroyed the Czech state. UCLA Film and Television Archive It may seem paradoxical, but munich`s failure is a strong argument for appeasing Iran. On September 28, at 10:00 a..m m., four hours before the deadline and without accepting Hitler`s request to Czechoslovakia, the British ambassador to Italy, Lord Perth, summoned Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano to request an urgent meeting. [37] Perth told Ciano that Chamberlain had asked him to include Mussolini in the negotiations and to urge Hitler to postpone the ultimatum. [37] At 11:00.m., Ciano met Mussolini and informed him of Chamberlain`s proposal; Mussolini agreed and responded by calling the Italian ambassador to Germany and telling him: „Go immediately to the Führer and tell him that whatever happens, I will be at his side, but that I ask for a delay of twenty-four hours before the start of hostilities.

In the meantime, I`ll explore what can be done to fix the problem. [40] Hitler receives Mussolini`s message during talks with the French ambassador. Hitler told the ambassador: „My good friend, Benito Mussolini, asked me to postpone the marching orders of the German army by twenty-four hours, and I agreed. Of course, this was not a concession, as the date of the invasion was set for October 1, 1938. [41] Addressing Chamberlain, Lord Perth thanked Mussolini and asked Mussolini to attend a conference of the four powers of Britain, France, Germany, and Italy in Munich on September 29 to resolve the Sudetenland problem before the 2:00 p.m. deadline.m. Mussolini agreed. [41] Hitler`s only demand was to ensure that Mussolini was included in the conference negotiations.

[41] When U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt learned that the conference was scheduled, he telegraphed Chamberlain, „Good man.“ [42] Many in the British government believed that the United States could not be trusted as an ally because the country had refused to join the League of Nations and had retreated to its usual isolationism. Although the nation as a whole may have been isolationist at the time, President Roosevelt proposed a Working Committee of Nations to draft a document on the essential principles of international behavior. However, Chamberlain rejected this idea on the grounds that Britain and France were already directly involved with Germany and Italy. Chamberlain preferred a „gentlemen`s agreement“ (with Hitler) if appeasement was to be achieved. (Wheeler-Bennett 1948, 270-1) Following the agreement, German forces crossed the border on October 1 and were warmly welcomed by Sudeten Germans, while many Czechoslovaks fled the area. When Chamberlain returned to London, he announced that he had obtained „peace for our time.“ While many members of the British government were pleased with the result, others were not.